Yes this can be used for marble fireplace surrounds. Just be absolutely sure you are using a continuous bead around the entire edge of the surround. After you have a continuous bead around the surround then you should put a bit of excess in the center of the surround as well for added adhesion. You also need to make sure you have a nice smooth surface, this will not work over a broken up old surround or if you are trying to adhere to marble to brick. Works best to adhere it over an intact surround such as ceramic tile or old marble, or if you can put new cement board down and adhere it to that, that is the preferred method.
If your surround is segmented and not one continuous piece then be sure to use tile spacers so the tile does not slip while the adhesive is curing. Also if you are using a segmented surround such as marble tile then you will want to build a support to hold the tiles that are over the fireplace opening from sagging while the adhesive is setting. This product has great grip, but marble is pretty heavy and will sag without any support on a vertical application.
Be ABSOLUTELY SURE to allow at least 3 days curing time as the vapors from this product are EXTREMELY flammable. (says 48 hours, but due to it being a fireplace, I'd give it an extra day or so) DO NOT USE THE FIREPLACE for at least 3 days. After 3 days go right up to the surround and give it a good sniff to see if you detect any of the vapors (trust me when you use it, you'll notice the vapor smell). You want to be sure no vapors got trapped while it was curing, if you can it helps to open the flue while it is curing to help get some airflow.
Have used this on a lot of marble and it works great. I have even used it on white marble and surprisingly it did not stain through the marble. The product is dark grey and so I had thought it might bleed through, have had an install with white marble for 6 months so far with no bleed through what so ever.