The faucet hardware: no. But the pedestal definitely comes with it!
19" wide. I don't know if it comes with 8" center, but I think the proportion would be off. Here's mine with 6" center.
The sink is actually designed to attach to the wall. A set of lag bolts and a set of toggle bolts are included so you can attach it. The pedestal provides a channel to "hide" water lines that otherwise will show. Major concern about hanging the sink from the wall is the strength of the wall. It must be braced to support a wall mount sink.
The space between the hot and cold water handles.
I don't know what a support board is but the sink just sits on top of its pedestal and has little toggles/clamps that hold it in place.
I have installed several of these beautiful sinks in our rentals and they make a striking appearance in our ads. This sink comes standard with three holes. Visit your local HD and ask if they sell a single handle faucet with a base plate to cover the other holes. But caution! It may or may not work depending on the profile of the faucet and the fact that the sink has a built in backsplash that makes for a tight fit.
No, the drain typically comes with the faucet.
Yes there is definitely room for a soap dispenser!
I actually had a plumber hook it up because he was already at my house doing another project. But he said that it wasn't a difficult project.