No, the largest template included in this kit is 4 inch.
Yes, but you may need to shim the bracket up depending on the door stop thickness.
Yes, it will work on the door as well as the jam.
Without a door stop they work perfectly on the jamb for the strike plate. You may need to shim up the bracket if the door stop is already installed.
There are no preset adjustments for a door that is 1.5 inches thick. You could shim the template bracket to allow the latch template to be centered on the door with the 1 3/8 setting though.
I find that a trim router once set up is easier to use, but if you are comfortable using the big guy, have at it
The router bit has a standard 1/4 inch shank.