How To Refinish Hardwood Floors
Time Required: Over 1 day
Hardwood floors typically last for the life of a home, but with wear and tear of everyday use, they will eventually need refinishing. Hardwood floor refinishing is a fairly simple do-it-yourself project. You may need to use some rented machines for sanding the wood floors, applying stain and adding a protective wood finish to make your hardwood floors look shiny and new again.
Renting the floor sanders increases the cost of hardwood floor refinishing but doing it yourself is still less expensive than hiring a flooring contractor or refinishing service. Having a pro do to the job for you is an option if you are unable to devote time for this gratifying DIY project, or if you still aren’t sure how to refinish wood floors. If you’re curious about how to refinish hardwood floors, keep reading.
- Remove the shoe base — the piece of quarter-round moulding attached where the floor meets the wall — to prevent the floor sander banging against it.
- Use a pry bar to pull it out, protecting the baseboard with a piece of scrap wood.
- Label each piece as you remove it to make it easier to replace it when the floor refinishing is complete.
- If there is no shoe base moulding, either remove the base moulding or take care not to damage it when operating the sanding machines.
- Check for squeaks and nail loose floorboards.
- The best approach is to nail into a floor joist, not just the subfloor, with 8d finishing nails.
- Find protruding nails by sliding the blade of a putty knife across the floor.
- Set the nails and fill the holes with wood putty.
- Use a drum sander along the length of the boards, with the grain. Work it back and forth over 3- to 4-foot lengths, removing scratches with overlapping strokes by at least 1/3 the belt width.
- Replacing the abrasive belt frequently is part of a good strategy to refinish hardwood floors. A typical belt is effective for about 250 square feet.
Tip: A drum sander can be difficult to maneuver until you get the hang of it. Ask the Home Depot tool rental associate for a demonstration and some operating tips on how to sand hardwood floors, and then practice on an old sheet of plywood before you start on your floors.
- When drum sanding, start with the coarsest sandpaper — typically 36- or 40-grit — then switch to 60-grit.
- Follow with 80- and finally 100-grit. Do not skip this progression; jumping ahead to a finer grade will not save you any time needed to refinish hardwood floors.
Tip: Eliminating scratches and stains are among the necessities of wood floor refinishing. Sanding can remove scratches from wear and tear but it's no match for a deep gouge or chip in the hardwood flooring. Sanding can often remove a stain caused by water but staining from pet urine produces dark discoloration deep within the flooring that often does not improve with sanding.
- Sweep and vacuum between sandings.
- Always sweep and vacuum the flooring before moving on to the next grit of sanding abrasive.
- This important step removes any debris left by the sandpaper that could scratch the results of the finer-grit paper.
- Sand corners, edges and small areas like closet floors, bathrooms or stairs with an edger.
- An edger can be difficult to control, so practice your technique on scrap wood first.
- As with the drum sander, start with course-grit paper and then move to finer grades.
- Each time you’re ready to change grades of on the drum sander, first use the edger using the same grade to keep the entire floor uniform.
- If there are small areas of flooring that even the edger cannot reach, removed the old surface with a scraper and some 80- and 100-grit paper by hand to remove the old finish.
- Go over the entire floor with a rented floor buffer fitted with a fine-grit screening pad.
- This type of sanding will level minor unevenness left by the drum sander and edger and buff away sanding scratches. It might seem like an unnecessary step but this little bit of effort can make your DIY work look like a professional job.
- The machine will swing to the right or left depending on how you position the handle, making broad arcs across the floor to get a smooth surface.
- Thoroughly sweep, vacuum and follow up with a tack cloth to remove all dust that you can.
- Dust and hairs can create imperfections in the finish.
- You’ve worked hard to refinish hardwood floors up to this point, so be as dust-free as possible while applying the floor finish.
- Apply interior wood stains to the flooring with a foam applicator pad.
- To refinish hardwood floors, work one manageable area at a time — four square feet, for example.
- Always stain in the direction of the wood grain.
- Most manufacturers recommend removing excess stain as you go — usually a few minutes after you apply it.
- Use clean cotton cloths or paper towels to remove excess. Some finishers prefer wiping the floor with a cotton cloth wrapped around a dry applicator pad.
- Allow the stain to dry as recommended before applying the first coat of wood finishes, whether you’re using polyurethane or shellac finishes.
- Water-based polyurethane wood finishes or lacquers dry fast, which can make them more difficult to work with.
- Oil-based polyurethane wood finish is slower to dry, which gives you more time to ensure a smooth coat, but the fumes require using of a respirator for organic vapors.
- Popular wood oils include Danish oil, teak oil, tung oil, cedar oil, ipe oil and mineral oil for wood.
- Apply the finish with a lamb’s wool applicator.
- When dry, sand the floor lightly with 220-grit paper or #000 steel wool. Vacuum up the dust.
- Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations; many suggest three coats of oil-based finish or four coats of water-based finish with sanding in between.
- To keep a lamb’s-wool applicator from drying out overnight, store it in a tightly sealed plastic bag. When it is time for the next coat, unwrap the applicator and you are ready to go.
Safety Tip: Store and dispose of oil-soaked rags properly. The heat generated naturally from wood oils on rags can set the rags on fire, especially if they are bunched together or in a closed container. Hang the rags outside, away from any structures, and allow them to dry thoroughly before disposing of them.