Yes, but you need to remain below the PSI limits.
No it would not work for the slam close check valve as it needs to remain open a second or so to gain the momentum to slam closed creating the shock that builds the water pressure. It would work for holding the line pressure after the slam close valve.
For the valve to open it takes 1 psi. For the casing to crack or break, the valve is rated at 200psi so anything above that.
Only the manufacturer of this check valve is qualified to answer your question. Standard (IAPMO IGC 312-2014) covers gate, globe, angle, and check valves in sizes NPS-1/8 to NPS-4, with minimum rated working pressures of 860 kPa (125 psi) at 23 ºC (73ºF), intended for use in water supply and distribution systems and specifies requirements for materials, physical characteristics, performance testing, and markings.
As long as you don't have any air leaks in your well pipe, it should work holding the pressure from escaping through a bad foot valve.
If you're using your pump as a booster pump, then yes, you would put the check valve before the pump. If the pump is being used to draw water and then pressurizing a system, like drawing from a well or standing water, then it would go in after the pump.